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Pine (more info)

Each Pine screen has a similar layout consisting of the top line which shows the screen name and other useful information, below that is the work area which, on the main menu, is a menu of options, then the message/prompt line and finally the menu of commands.

To Quit Pine Press 'Q'

The Main Menu This lists Pine's main options . The key or keys you must type to enter your choice is to the left of each option or command name. You can usually type either uppercase or lowercase letters, and you should not press to enter commands. From the Main Menu you can choose to read online help, write (compose) and send a message, look at an index of your mail messages, open or maintain your mail folders, update your address book, configure or update Pine, and quit Pine. There are additional options listed at the bottom of the screen as well. Now that you know how to start Pine, you can explore on your own, or you can browse the rest of this document for a summary of Pine's main features.

Getting Help in Pine To read the online help, use the Help command at the bottom of each screen. For example, at the Main Menu screen, press ? (Help). Because the help text is context sensitive, you never see all of it at once-only the part that relates to the Pine feature you are using. To exit the online help, press E (Exit Help).

Writing a Message in Pine To write a message, press C (Compose). You see the Compose Message screen. In the command menu above, the ^ character is used to indicate the Control key. This character means you must hold down the Control key (written in this document as ) while you press the letter for each command. Different commands are available to you when your cursor is in different fields on this screen. To see additional commands available when your cursor is in the Message Text field, type G (Get Help). For example, to move around, use the arrow keys or N (Next line) and P (Previous line); to correct typing errors, use or .


Writing and Sending E-mails

    1. Press C (Compose) to see the Compose Message screen.
    2. In the To field, type the email address you are sending to and press .
    3. In the Cc field, press .
    4. In the Attachment field, press .
    5. In the Subject field, type your subject and press .
    6. Below the Message Text line, type your message.
    7. To send your message, type X (Send). You are asked: Send message?
    8. Press y (yes) or press .

The message is sent and a copy is saved to your sent-mail folder. (If you press n (no) the message is not sent, and you can continue to work on it.)


Listing, Viewing, Replying to, and Forwarding Messages

Pine stores messages that are sent to you in your INBOX folder. Messages remain in your INBOX until you delete them or save them in other folders. To see a list of the messages you have received in your INBOX folder at the Pine Main Menu, press I (Folder Index). If you have any messages, they are listed in date order. The selected message is highlighted. The first column on the left is blank, or shows a "+" if the message was sent directly to you (i.e., it is not a copy or from a list). The second column may be blank, or it may contain:

    "N" if the message is new (unread),
    "A" if you have answered the message (using the Reply command),
    "D" if you have marked the message for deletion. [Note: If you answer a message as well as mark it deleted (in either order), you only see the "D".] The rest of the columns in the message line show you the message number, date sent, sender, size, and subject.


To view a message:

    1. At the Folder Index screen, use the arrow keys to highlight the message you want to view.
    2. Press V (ViewMsg) or press to read a selected message.

            To see the next message, press N (NextMsg).
            To see the previous message, press P (PrevMsg)
            To return to the index, press I (Index).



Replying to a Message

To reply to a message that you have selected at the Folder Index screen or that you are viewing: Press R (Reply).

You are asked whether you want to include the original message in your reply. Also, if the original message was sent to more than one person, you are asked if you want to reply to all recipients. Think carefully before you answer-it may be that you do not want your reply to be sent to more than just the author of the message. It is always a good idea to check the list of addresses in the To and Cc fields before you send a message to see who will receive it. Forwarding a Message


Pine Folders

Messages can quickly accumulate in your INBOX folder. If you use email often, you soon could have hundreds. You need to delete messages you do not want, and you can use folders to organise messages you wish to save. A folder is a collection of one or more messages that are stored (just like the messages in your INBOX) so you can access and manage them.


Organising Messages With Folders

You can organise your email messages into different folders by topic, correspondent, date, or any other category that is meaningful to you. You can create your own folders, and Pine automatically provides three:

The INBOX folder-messages sent to you are listed in this folder. When you first start Pine and go to the Folder Index screen, you are looking at the list of messages in your INBOX folder. Every incoming message remains in your INBOX until you delete it or save it in another folder.

The saved-messages folder-copies of messages you save are stored in this folder unless you save them to other folders you create yourself. See "Saving a Message". The sent-mail folder-copies of messages you send are stored in this folder. This is convenient if you cannot remember whether you actually sent a message and want to check, or if you want to send a message again.


Keeping Folders Clean

Messages-whether they are in your INBOX or your other Pine folders-occupy storage space, and your storage space is limited. Check your email frequently to see if you have new messages.

Do not keep too many messages in your INBOX folder. A large INBOX reduces performance: it takes longer to display large lists of messages when you start Pine, and it requires more time to move between messages. Delete your incoming messages right away if you do not want them, or save them to other folders if you do. Routinely delete obsolete messages from all of your Pine folders. You will get a message via Pine at the end of each month asking you about your sent-mail folders. First it asks you if you want to rename (and thus save) your current sent-mail folder. Then it asks if you want to delete any sent-mail folders (and all the messages they contain) from previous months and the current month. To conserve space, it is a good idea to delete any sent-mail folders you do not want.


Moving Between Folders

When you start Pine and press I (Index) at the Main Menu, you see a list of messages in your INBOX folder. If you want to see the messages in another folder, you need to go to that folder. The following text shows you two ways to go to another folder from nearly anywhere in Pine.

To access your folders and the messages that are stored in them:

    1. Press L (ListFldrs). You see the Folder List screen with collections of folders. Typically each collection is shown as in the example below with a "Select Here to See Expanded List" button below each.
    2. If it is not already highlighted, use the arrow keys to highlight the "Select Here to See Expanded List" button below the desired collection (e.g., Folder-collection of mail) and press . You see an expanded list of folders, similar to the following, in which your current folder is highlighted.
    3. Use the arrow keys to highlight another folder.
    4. To see an index of the messages in that folder, press V (ViewFldr) or press . [Note: This method of accessing folders uses the Folder List screen, which has a menu of commands that enable you to add, delete, rename folders, etc. If you simply want to move to and list the messages in another folder, try the method below.]

To move most quickly to the index of another folder:

    1. From almost anywhere in Pine, press G (GotoFldr). You are prompted for the name of a folder. [Note: If you have more than one folder collection defined, observe the folder name prompt to make sure it is set for the desired collection. If it is not, type N (Next Collection) or P (Prev Collection) to select the desired collection.]
    2. Type the folder name. [Note you can also press to choose the default folder shown in brackets in the prompt.]
    3. Press . You see the list of messages in the folder.


Deleting a Folder

To delete a folder and all of the messages it contains:

    1. Press L (ListFldrs). You see the Folder List screen. [Note: If you see "Select Here to See Expanded List" on your screen, use the arrow keys to highlight the desired collection (e.g., Folder-collection of mail) and press .] You see an expanded list of your folders in which your current folder is highlighted. (When you start Pine, the current folder is your INBOX. You cannot delete your INBOX.)
    2. Use the arrow keys to highlight the folder you wish to delete.
    3. To delete the entire folder of messages, press D (Delete). You are asked: Really delete "folder"?
    4. Press y (yes) if you want to delete the folder and all of its messages. The folder disappears. [Warning: There is no way to undelete a deleted folder.]


Saving a Message

When you save a message, you are given a choice: you can store it in the saved-messages folder, or you can specify another folder.

Once you save a message, the copy in the INBOX folder automatically is marked for deletion so that you only will have one copy. When you quit Pine, you are asked to confirm whether or not you want to expunge the copy from the INBOX folder. To conserve space, it is a good idea to do this.


Saving a Message to the Saved-Messages Folder

To save a message to the saved-messages folder:

    1. At the Folder Index screen, use the arrow keys to highlight the message you want to save, or, at the Message Text screen as you view a message: Press S (Save). You are asked if you want to save the message to the saved-messages folder or to another folder: SAVE to folder in [saved-messages]:
    2. Press to choose the default folder: [saved-messages]. Pine saves your message, and you see the following: [Message # copied to "saved-messages" in and deleted] Saving a Message to a Folder You Specify You will find it useful to create additional folders for storing messages on particular subjects.


To save a message to a folder you specify:
    1. At the Folder Index screen, use the arrow keys to highlight the message you want to save or, at the Message Text screen as you view a message: Press S (Save) to save a message. You are asked if you want to save it to the saved-messages folder or to another folder: SAVE to folder in [saved-messages]:
    2. Type a foldername and press . For example, to save a message to a folder named "papers" type papers and press . If this is the first time you have named this folder, you see the message: Folder "papers" in doesn't exist. Create? Press y or press to create the folder. Once you have created the folder, or whenever you type the name of a folder that already exists, you see amessage like this one: [Message # copied to "papers" in and deleted]


Deleting a Message

You keep your Pine folders clean by routinely deleting messages you do not want. There are two steps to deleting a message: marking it for deletion and then expunging it.

To mark a message you do not want for deletion:

    1. Select and open the folder that contains the message you wish to mark for deletion. If you are a Pine beginner, this message is probably in your INBOX folder. If the message you want to mark for deletion is in a folder other than your INBOX, see "Moving Between Folders".

    2. At the Folder Index screen, select the message you want to mark for deletion, or simply view the message.     3. Press D (Delete). If you are looking at the Folder Index screen when you mark a message for deletion, a "D" appears in the left column of the message line, and the next message, if there is one, is selected. If you are looking at the Message Text screen when you mark a message for deletion, a "DEL" briefly appears in the upper right corner of your screen, you get an on-screen message that the message has been deleted, and the next message, if there is one, appears. Repeat this process to mark additional messages for deletion.


Undeleting a Message

If you change your mind about a message you have marked for deletion, use the U (Undelete) command to remove the deletion mark any time before you expunge a message. Remember: After you expunge a message, Pine cannot get it back.


Expunging a Message

A message that is marked for deletion remains in Pine until you expunge it. You can expunge a message that is marked for deletion at any time, or you can wait until you quit Pine. Once you have a few messages marked for deletion, you may want to expunge them before you continue to work, because it is easier to look through a folder index that contains fewer messages.

To expunge a message: [Warning: Once you expunge a message, it is gone. Pine cannot get it back.]

    1. At the Folder Index screen, press X (eXpunge). You are asked: Expunge # message(s) from "foldername"?     2. Press y (yes) or press . Messages marked for deletion disappear. [Note: You will be asked whether you want to expunge messages that are marked for deletion whenever you leave a folder (other than the INBOX) that contains messages marked for deletion, or when you quit your Pine session]

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